The Pronoun And Kinds Of Pronoun

Definition: A Pronoun is a word in place of a noun in a sentence; as I, we, our, she, etc.

संज्ञा के स्थान पर प्रयुक्त होने वाले शब्द सर्वनाम कहलाता हैं। जैसे – वह, वे, मैं, तुम, हम, हमारा आदि।

Look at the following sentences in the table:

1. Sohan is my classmate.
He is the monitor of our class.
Sohan’  – noun
‘He’  – pronoun
2. The chair is made of costly wood.
It is the one I like.
Chair’  – noun
‘It’  – pronoun

In the above table, Sohan is a noun. It is replaced by He, He is a pronoun. Similarly, in the second sentence, the chair is a noun, the chair is a noun, and it is a pronoun used in its place.

Kinds Of Pronoun

Personal pronouns

The pronoun which stands for names of persons or things is called a Personal Pronoun as I, we, you, he, it.

जिस सर्वनाम से किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु अथवा जानवर का बोध होता है, पुरुषवाचक सर्वनाम कहलाता है।

Personal Pronoun 

First person pronouns

(I, me, my, mine, we, our, us)

Second person pronouns

(you, your, yours)

Third person

(He, she, it, they, her, his, their, its, them)

  1. First person pronouns:

It stands for the person speaking the sentence.

  • I play in the evening.
  • We play kabaddi.
  • Sohan helps me.
  • He comes with me.
  • That house is mine.
  • Those books are ours.

      2. Second person pronouns:

  • You love your parents.
  • That house is yours.
  • The teacher teaches you.
  • Which is your classroom?

      3. Third person pronouns:

  • She has prepared this chart.
  • He has done it.
  • Help him in his studies.
  • That house is hers.
  • It is a rare painting.
  • They are all good players.
  • I will speak to them.
  • They all are good Players.
  • Those books are theirs.

Reflexive(Emphatic) pronouns:

Reflexive or Emphatic pronouns are formed by adding ‘self’ (in singular) and ‘selves’ (in plural).

जिस pronoun से काम का प्रभाव subject पर पड़ना प्रकट हो, Reflexive Pronoun अन्य किसी पर नहीं, कहलाता है। है –

  • I availed myself of the opportunity.
  • We availed ourselves of the chance.
  • He himself said it.
  • Now you do it yourselves, boys.
  • The crow sang itself.
  • You can do it yourself, Mohan.
  • She herself posted the letter.
  • They crossed the bridge themselves.

Myself, ourselves, himself, yourself, yourselves, herself, itself, themselves शब्द Reflexive pronouns हैं । वाक्य में ‘self’ का प्रयोग काम करने वाले (doer) पर जोर देने के लिए किया जाता है। जैसे –

‘They themselves’ ‘they and no one else’.

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पढ़िए –

  • I myself posted the letter.
  • You yourself place the book here, please.
  • Sohan himself prepared the notes.
  • Boys, you yourself decided the date of the test, now stick to it.
  • We ourselves did it.
  • They themselves raised this slogan.
  • Karuna herself made it clear to all.

यहाँ myself, ourselves, itself, herself, themselves आदि शब्द दर्शाते है कि कार्य स्वयं कर्त्ता (subject) ने किया है किसी और ने नहीं। Reflexive Pronoun का प्रयोग कभी भी subject के रूप में नहीं किया जाता। जैसे –

Relative Pronouns:

Relative Pronoun joins two sentences and refers to the noun going before it as who, where, which, whose, that, etc.

जो pronoun दो वाक्यों को जोड़ता है और अपने से पहले से पहले नाउन आए noun से सम्बन्ध प्रकट करता है, Relative Pronoun कहलाता है।

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पढ़िए –

  • Boys are playing. They are the students of 8th class.
  • The boys who are playing are the students of 8th class.
  • He is a man. His pocket was picked.
  • He is the man whose pocket was picked.
  • He is the boy. I gave him this book.
  • He is the boy whom I gave this book.
  • It is a beautiful watch. I bought it from a Co-operative store.
  • The watch which I bought from a Co-operative store, is beautiful.

Interrogative pronouns:

Pronouns which are used for asking question questions are called Interrogative Pronouns as – who, which, what etc. जो pronoun प्रश्न पूछने का कार्य करता है, Interrogative Pronoun कहलाता है।

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पढ़िए –

  • Who writes a letter?
  • What is that?
  • Which is your car?
  • What did you learn?
  • Which is the Shortest way?

Indefinite Pronouns:

These pronouns do not refer to a particular person or thing as – some, any, anybody, everybody, many, anyone, few, none, nothing etc.

जिस pronoun से किसी निश्चित व्यक्ति अथवा वस्तु का बोध नहीं होता, उसे Indefinite Pronoun कहते हैं।

निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पढ़िए –

  • Someone is coming.
  • None can do it.
  • Anybody can speak.
  • Nothing is happening.

पहले वाक्य में someone कर्त्ता है लेकिन इससे यह निश्चित नहीं होता कि कौन आ रहा है? इसी प्रकार nothing, anybody, और none भी Indefinite pronouns हैं।

Demonstrative Pronouns:

These pronouns point out a person or thing out a person or a thing as – this, these, that, those etc.

जो pronoun किसी noun की ओर संकेत करता है, Demonstrative Pronoun कहलाता है।

  • This is my pen.
  • That is his house.
  • These are wooden Chairs.
  • Those are his cows.

इन वाक्यों में this, that, these, those किसी व्यक्ति अथवा वस्तु की ओर संकेत करते हैं अतः ये Demonstrative Pronoun हैं।

Distributive Pronouns:

They refers to persons or things considered not collectively but individually.

जो pronoun वाक्य में प्रयुक्त व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं में से प्रत्येक को सूचित करे, Distributive Pronouns कहलाता है।
निम्नलिखित वाक्यों को पढ़िए –

Note: They are singular in number and take a singular verb.

  • Each of you should do it.
  • Either of the two has taken my pen.
  • Neither of them has attempted this question.
  • Either of the two has taken my pen.
  • Each of these batsmen has hit a four.

यहाँ each, either, neither शब्द समूह में से किसी एक व्यक्ति का बोध कराते हैं। either का प्रयोग affirmative (स्वीकारात्मक) वाक्यों में दो में से किसी एक की ओर संकेत करने के लिए किया जाता है। जैसे –

  • Either of the students has broken the window pane.

(अर्थात दोनों में से किसी एक की विद्यार्थी ने शीशा तोडा है।)

  • Neither of them attempted the last question.

(अर्थात दोनों में से किसी ने भी अंतिम प्रश्न हल नहीं किया।)

Manvi Sharma

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